Foreign

Péter Tusor–Mattero Sanfilippo (ed.)

The volume contains Italian and English introduction and 18 studies in Italian or in English on nearly 500 pages. Its genesis was given by the international workshop organised May 2013 in Budapest with the same title for the 500th anniversary of the participation of Cardinal Tamás Bakócz the archbishop of Esztergom in the conclave. The Italian, Spanish, French, German, Austrian, Slovenian and Hungarian lecturers without exception detailed their thoughts and utilized the experiences of the scholarly conference lasting several days in monumental studies written in Italian or in English.

The volume divides into six chapters; each is introduced by a study that synthesizes the given period and themes, followed by two or three analytic papers.

There are separate chapters about the 16th century and the age of the “reform nunciatures” (I.); the 17th century political, church jurisdictional and doctrinal questions (II.); the problems of the Holy See and the local churches in the 18th century (III.); and the overseas missions in the early modern age (IV.). In the Vth (1–2) chapter the relations to some particular churches (Poland, German bishops) and the role of the nunciatures of Paris and Munich is presented up to the 19th and partially to the 20th century. The VIth chapter has again chronological character and deals with the long 19th century with outlook to the modern age.

The collection of studies utilizes and contains the latest results of the relating international researches. Its declared aim is to be an essential aid and inspirer of further examinations in these subjects of world history nature (Reformation, Gallicanism, the Roman Question....).

The book is closed by an account about the conference and an index of names. The results of the Italian studies are delineated in English summaries.

Péter Tusor

This volume, entitled The Baroque Papacy (16001700), originally contains the material of the early modern European history seminar held by the author at the Péter Pázmány Catholic University. In the Foreword, the author provides a brief review of the paradigm of confessionalisation. The Introduction (I) summarises the impressive achievements of the reform papacy, the main characteristics of the less dynamic baroque papacy and the gradual change in the relationship of the papal Curia with nation states. The first large chapter (II) examines the role played by the Apostolic See in the European political stage. The focus is on the accelerating loss of pontifical power under Pope Urban V III and on the temporary reversal of this trend due to the organization of the Holy League by Pope Innocent XI, which liberated Hungary from 150 years of Turkish rule.Next, the author analyses the social, economic and financial structures of the State of the Church (III). A separate subchapter deals with the college of cardinals, the pope’s court and Roman society, as well as the the papal financial system and its institutions, the sources, types, sums and the balance of revenues and expenditures. Key processes are best modelled by the rise and fall of papal nepotism (IV). The portrayal of the changes in social and economic structures is followed by a presentation of the Curia’s pioneering decision-making system (V), which, however, became increasingly complicated and, at the end of the 17th century, underwent comprehensive reforms. In the course of this is chapter, the author discusses dicasteriums, which originate in the Middle Ages, but focuses on the expanding network of congregations, their operation, structure and competence, and finally examines the network of nunciatures and especially the development of the pontifical State Secretariate. The aim of these three chapters (III–V) is not only to understand the shifts in pontifical policy in the Early Modern Era, but also to shed light on the changes of Roman church administration and church policy as well as the changing relationship between Rome and local church organisations. The last large chapter (VI) contains a summary of the latter two, including precedent cases, key ordinances, legal frameworks, a summary of the technical and organisational problems of maintaining contacts with Rome and finally an analysis of Spanish, French and German church relations as a sample. In the end, the book contains an Outlook on the 18th century, an Appendix with the archontology of popes and chief curial magistrates.