Collectanea Studiorum et Textuum


The Collectanea Studiorum et Textuum includes monographs, dissertations, study and lexicon volumes that do not or only partially contain Roman research results; as well as aims at revealing sources related to Hungary and Vienna by the issue of data depositories and manuals along with source publications. It can be ordered at: cvh@btk.ppke.hu

CLASSIS I

vol. 1
Péter Tusor

PÉTER TUSOR, The letters of György Lippay, bishop of Veszprém, Eger and archbishop of Esztergom to Hungarian aristocrats and nobles (1635–1665) (CST I/1), Budapest 2015. liv + pp. 544 + 9 suppl. (facsimiles, map)
 
The volume that is a completion of a former collection of sources was provided with professional note apparatus, redacted and published as a supplement of the original Impetus-program. It contains altogether 448 letters that were written by György Lippay either as the Hungarian court chancellor of Vienna (1635–1642) or as the primate of Hungary (1642–1666) to the Palatines, to the Judges of the Royal Court, to the district captain-generals, etc. These allow an insight into the details of the dual exercise of power shared by the orders and the monarch in the middle third of the 17th century.
 
In addition, they illustrate through what kind of transmissions the governance of the country took place from the centre in Vienna, what the role of the leaders of the ecclesiastical order was in it and how their relation to the leaders of the “status saecularis” was. It is also presented what were the difficulties and pitfalls of the operation of this complex system (particularly as regards the fluctuating relationship of the primate and the Palatine, the two poles of the orders). The techniques that were used for ensuring the operability and making occasionally quick and efficient decisions can be learnt from them as well. Furthermore, the process of disintegration of the system that was formed at the beginning of the 17th century and was consolidated under the archbishoprics of Péter Pázmány – in which besides the Palatine the archbishop of Esztergom as the primate of Hungary played an unavoidable role in the governing of the Kingdom –, took place in the 1650–1660s and caused by the forming Habsburg absolutism, can be followed up.
 
The letters written as chancellor or primate contain essential information about the imperial court. As regards government history we can find a lot of important data on the role of the Hungarian governing bodies, the Hungarian Court Chancery, the Chamber of Pozsony and there are hints at the Hungarian Council in them. The preparation of the Diets is also an often recurring theme. From the numerous documents concerning the policy towards Transylvania can be outlined that Lippay despite all his efforts did not manage to replace Pázmány in the relations with György Rákóczy I.
 
Along with the political and government history aspects the military history dimension of the volume is also determining. In the source-material the ecclesiastical subject is actually secondary. The letters reveal the Hungarian prelate’s extremely diverse and complex system of social relations starting out from the contacts of legal and representational nature deriving from his social and official role to his relations of personal, friendly nature or to those of right the opposite. From these documents besides the historical role and relations of their writer we can also ascertain personal data and curiosities about him.

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vol. 2
Krisztina Tóth

Krisztina Tóth: The History of the Diocese of Szombathely under the Church Governance of József Grősz (1936–1944), (CST I/2), Budapest 2015. 336 p. + 4 suppl. (photos)
 

The book discusses a so far unknown chapter of the 20th century history of the diocese of Szombathely, when József Grősz headed it (from 1936 to 1939 as an apostolic administrator, from 1939 to 1943 as a diocesan and from 1943 to 1944 again as an apostolic administrator). It continues the A szombathelyi egyházmegye története [The history of the diocese of Szombathely] edited in three volumes by the priest historian Gyula Géfin between 1929 and 1935. It has a double importance. On the one hand, it offers a model for writing the history of a diocese based on the principles of the Benedictine monk Tihamér Vanyó adjusting them to the peculiarities of the age. The author presents the background of the appointments of the ordinary, the administration of the diocese, the tasks of the clergy, the role of the religious orders, the Catholic education, the apostolate of the laity and the spiritual movements. On the other hand it offers a glance into the former career of József Grősz, who stood three times on the head of the Bench of Bishops in the absence of the primate, Cardinal József Mindszenty, delineating his principles as regards Church governing.

The writer used a great variety of sources: she conducted research in 13 archives – among them in the Vatican Archives – and 1 manuscript collection. An appendix (source publication, maps and charts), four full page photos and a longer English summary provided with footnotes belong to the volume. It is recommended for all of those who are interested in the history of the diocese or search for additions to the relations of the Holy See and Hungary.

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CLASSIS I.

4.
Erdő Péter–Szovák Kornél–Tusor Péter

Formularium Ecclesiae Strigoniensis (Collectanea Studiorum et Textuum, vol. I/4), edendo operi praefuerunt Petrus card. Erdő, Cornelius Szovák, Petrus Tusor, Budapest  2018 (lxxxiv + 880 pp., 8 facsim.)

The Cathedral Library of Esztergom keeps the formulary (“Nyási-codex”) from the late Middle Ages, of whose sample codex (“Beneéthy-codex”) reached its present place of occurrence – in the collection of the Bibliotheca Batthyanyana of Gyulafehérvár founded by Bishop Ignác Batthyány – after having taken an adventurous journey through Pozsony (Pressburg) in the 18th century. The two manuscripts are closely connected with each other as well as mainly with the function of the archiepiscopal tribunal of Esztergom.

When the texts of the two codices were edited and copied at the beginning of the 16th century, the compilation of the collections of sample letters having numerous sub-types and functions had already had a history in the medieval Hungary. Undoubtedly, though, that such activity was influenced by Italy: from the studies of the Hungarian students at the Northern Italian universities in the 13th century, through the official samples given by the papal legates of the early 14th century to the activities of the Italian vicars at the turn of the 15–16th century. Thus, samples were attached to the theoretical knowledge, which was finally completed by the personal practice. The most important characteristic of the secular and church formularies was that the legal order and the principles of the local judicial practice were put down in writing. Yet, this was always influenced by the theoretical law material acquired in the higher education, effectively, the customary law was the basis of the tribunals’ function, in this respect all the countries had their sovereign legal practice. The early formularies resulted in particular collections in both – secular and ecclesiastical – fields; the appearance of the syntheses was the outcome of the end of the 15th century.

The two codices – the Nyási collection of Esztergom and the Beneéthy manuscript of Gyulafehérvár – are the representatives of the synthesis of the late Middle Ages in the ecclesiastical law, just as the Magyi-codex of Pécs in the practice of the notary public. Before 1512, the sample manuscript was compiled by Máté Beneéthy, the notary of the primatial court of Esztergom, through the collection and sensible selection (= making it like a form) of the forwarded documents. This material was copied by an unknown notary of the office of Vicar General Demeter Nyási in around 1521, who slightly rearranged it and after having omitting certain items, he completed it with numerous new items. Although, the original editing is of the former (sample) manuscript, the complemented version consists of the most complete documentation of the medieval church administration of Esztergom.

Our text edition is the first one to publish a complete manuscript of church administration in a critical edition. The Nyási-codex forms the basis of the editio; however, its apparatus and appendix make the acquaintance of the sample codex’s text possible. As neither the Beneéthy-codex, nor the Nyási version is perfect in itself, by the continuous checking of the two versions the publishers attempted the late medieval reconstruction of the Stylus Strigoniensis; they made their decision by the thorough examination of the problematic places concerning the occurring opportunities. The publication hereby follows the text constructional practice elaborated in classical philology; yet, the complete texts of the two manuscripts can be acquainted without any difficulties by the help of the complex apparatus. These are introduced to the readers along with minimal historical commentaries by indicating the parallel places and the extracts that had earlier been published.

The thorough study of the text enables the reader to get acquainted with the everyday life of the late medieval church administration, the practice of the church jurisdiction, the order of holding a synod, methods and circumstances of the supervising function of the canonical visits, the occurring questions relating to the clergymen, the complex connections of the monastic reform, the daily businesses of the ecclesiastical court (last will, loan, charitable gift, indulgence, beggar’s licence, excommunication, absolution, etc.) and finally, the main questions of the liturgical practice. The colourful picture also meets the claim of completeness, since there are few topics of the church life that were not covered by the compilation of the editors. The authors are planning to write a detailed commentary to the text-volume later; furthermore, a collection of the extant authentic documents on the activities of the vicar general and its comparison to the sample-collection.

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CLASSIS II

tom. 1
JÓZSEF TÖRÖK– PÉTER TUSOR–KRISZTINA TÓTH (ed.)

JÓZSEF TÖRÖK– PÉTER TUSOR–KRISZTINA TÓTH (ed.): Catholicism in Hungary in the age of the II Vatican Council. Studies and Inventory, (CST II/1), Budapest 2015. pp. 436 + 2 suppl. (photos)
 
The volume published for the 50th anniversary of the closure of the Second Vatican Council was born within the framework of cooperation with the Pontifical Committee for Historical Sciences. After the foreword of József Török and Péter Tusor the first part of the book contains studies that approach the Council and its reception from a new point of view, while its second part reveals the results of the considerable collection of data conducted as part of the mentioned cooperation.
 
The series of studies begins with the paper of Máté Gárdonyi, who gives a general overview about the searching for way of the theology in the socialist society according to the teachings of the Second Vatican Council. Balázs Rétfalvi deals with the participation of Sándor Kovács Bishop of Szombathely at the council primarily on the basis of the rich source material kept in the Diocesan Archives of Szombathely. György Sági examines the career of Pál Brezanóczy with particular regards to his participation at the Second Vatican Council. Krisztina Tóth publishes the account written by Sándor Károly Klempa O.Praem to the clergy of his diocese that presents the events through the eyes of a participant.
 
The volume not only concentrates on the concrete participation at the Council, but it also gives a glimpse about the possibilities of realisation of its ideas and deliberations within the narrow frames that stood up by the communist authorities. Accordingly, Miklós Jávor examines an aspect of the official hierarchy, the Catholic and Protestant „peace organisations” and „peace activity” in the Kádár era. Péter Beke details the activity of the State Office for Church Affairs in Szolnok County in the 1970s. Finally, Bernát Benyhe presents the role of the Bokor community.
 
The Inventory-part of the book starts with the essay of Krisztina Tóth, who outlines the planning of exploration work, the followed method and the perspectives of the research. This study is followed by the chart about the legacy of the Council Fathers living in Hungary compiled by the research group. It serves as an excellent orientation point for the historians who deal with this subject. The volume contains also an Index of names and places and English summaries.
 
Scheda Descrittiva dei padri conciliari ungheresi
Krisztina Tóth, Documents of the Hungarian Council Fathers in Hungarian Archives. Lessons and perspectives of a teamwork,  Il concilio Vaticano II alla luce degli archivi dei padri conciliari (a cura di Philippe Chenaux), Roma 2015, 253–269.

CLASSIS III

fasc. 1
Wolfgang Reinhard

Wolfgang Reinhard, Felekezet és felekezetszerveződés Európában. A tudományos diskurzus fejleményei [Konfession und Konfessionalisierung in Europa. Der Stand der Diskussion] (CST III/1) (transl. in Hungarian by András Forgó; ed. by Péter Tusor), Budapest 2017. pp. 32.

The study of Wolfgang Reinhard  is published here at first time, and in Hungarian translation. Between 1977 and 2010 the author had already written six studies regarding confessionalisation. He had also given his ideas much consideration and reacted to multiple criticisms. In his 1977 work, he pointed out that in parallel with the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic “Counter-Reformation” had also contributed to the modernization of European society. In 1981, to mark the jubilee of the Augustan Confession (Confessio Augustana) in the previous year, he readdressed the topic by going back to Ernst Walter Zeeden’s idea of the “age of confessionalisation”. The Counter-Reformation is not mentioned here as one of the stages of the three-stage dialectic model (reformation/counter-reformation/confrontation), but is examined in parallel with other confessions which occurred in the 1500’s (German Lutheran – Mediterranean Tridentine Catholic – Swiss Calvinist – Anglican). He also analysed these confessions’ spiritual, mental and social modernizing role that indicated the same direction.

Wolfgang Reinhard analysed the confessionalisation not only in the context of the German territorial churches: he also covered France and Italy in his research. He suggested that he had demonstrated in 2010 how the new confessions had been established and determined themselves; why the viable ones could survive and many other initiatives had disappeared (like that of the Anabaptists, Anti-Trinitarians), or been confined to the periphery.

In the second half of his paper, Wolfgang Reinhard addressed the latest criticism his idea received; he also reviewed his model in terms of cultural anthropology. He outlined the existence of the inter- and trans-confessional phenomena, however, he immediately added that these are exceptional cases, they do not imply the refutation of the whole thesis.

According to the final conclusion of the author, the model of confessionalisation – which proved to be a relevant and developing paradigm in the recognition and comprehension of European history – values the religious processes of the early modern period not in terms of historical action/counteraction, but the parallelism of modernisation.

fasc. 1
Wolfgang Reinhard

Wolfgang Reinhard, Konfession und Konfessionalisierung in Europa. Der Stand der Diskussion (CST III/1) (transl. in Hungarian by András Forgó; ed. by Péter Tusor), Budapest 2017. pp. 32.

The study of Wolfgang Reinhard  is published here at first time, and in Hungarian translation. Between 1977 and 2010 the author had already written six studies regarding confessionalisation. He had also given his ideas much consideration and reacted to multiple criticisms. In his 1977 work, he pointed out that in parallel with the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic “Counter-Reformation” had also contributed to the modernization of European society. In 1981, to mark the jubilee of the Augustan Confession (Confessio Augustana) in the previous year, he readdressed the topic by going back to Ernst Walter Zeeden’s idea of the “age of confessionalisation”. The Counter-Reformation is not mentioned here as one of the stages of the three-stage dialectic model (reformation/counter-reformation/confrontation), but is examined in parallel with other confessions which occurred in the 1500’s (German Lutheran – Mediterranean Tridentine Catholic – Swiss Calvinist – Anglican). He also analysed these confessions’ spiritual, mental and social modernizing role that indicated the same direction.

Wolfgang Reinhard analysed the confessionalisation not only in the context of the German territorial churches: he also covered France and Italy in his research. He suggested that he had demonstrated in 2010 how the new confessions had been established and determined themselves; why the viable ones could survive and many other initiatives had disappeared (like that of the Anabaptists, Anti-Trinitarians), or been confined to the periphery.

In the second half of his paper, Wolfgang Reinhard addresses the latest criticism his idea received; he also reviews his model in terms of cultural anthropology. He outlines the existence of the inter- and trans-confessional phenomena, however, he immediately adds that these are exceptional cases, they do not imply the refutation of the whole thesis.

According to the final conclusion of the author, the model of confessionalisation – which proved to be a relevant and developing paradigm in the recognition and comprehension of European history – values the religious processes of the early modern period not in terms of historical action/counteraction, but the parallelism of modernisation.